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Site 26 - Ferintosh, Alberta
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Located in north central Alberta, north-east
of Red Deer, Ferintosh has a large portion of its industry found in processing and the
remainder in service. The population (115) has seen a decrease of 8% over the past few
years. The labour force participation rate is 53% and the unemployment rate is 22%.
Ferintosh's economy is based on mixed
farming, ranching and more recently oil and gas, services and retirement. The village is
located 125 km South East of Edmonton. The population of 153 has been increasing slowly
over the past five years. Ferintosh and hinterland communities have recognized the
village's scenic amenity and a couple of Bed and Breakfast businesses have opened in
recent years. The quite community encourages retirees a with a strong seniors centre.
The community lost the Ferintosh School in
1975, along with two out of three of the grain elevators in 1976. The third elevator was
removed in 1996. The loss of the school represented a loss of social focus for the village
of Ferintosh. The loss of the grain elevators decreased the village tax base and affected
local businesses with fewer hinterland residents' shopping in Ferintosh.
Many retired Farmers have not been able to
passed their land to the next generation and have sold to expanding farms. Recently
Hutterite Colonies have joined the competitive land market in the Ferintosh area. The
colonies are relatively closed communities with their own schools and social arrangements.
The introduction of the Hutterite Colonies along with the expanding farms has decreased
the hinterland population for Ferintosh to survive upon.
Good road conditions low housing costs and
the scenic amenity of Ferintosh has attracted retires. The forested rolling hills and the
Little Beaver Lake are Ferintosh's main amenity. The economy is restructuring as its
farmer commercial hinterland gives way to the influences it's larger near by centres.
PROFILE OF FERINTOSH, ALBERTA
by E. K. Waygood
This profile is based on information obtained
from the Ferintosh District History, `Little Beaver Tales', published in 1986,
supplemented by interviews.
The present Ferintosh area was originally a
noted meeting place for Natives who named the area Amiskoogis Saskihigan, meaning, little
lake belonging to the beaver. During the 1880s European fur traders hunted buffalo in the
area and then traveled on to Winnipeg for the fur trade. In the 1890s ranchers established
in the watershed area and discovering rich soil in the area, the first settlers began
cultivation in the early 1900s creating the first economic activities in the area.
The first settlers arrived by rail from the
Edmonton-Calgary railway that traveled through the Wetaskiwin area. The arrival of the
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway line in 1910 marked the year of settlers, homesteads and grain
farming. The village of Ferintosh was originally known as Lassen after the first
settlement of homesteads in the area belonging to J. H. Lassen. The village was renamed
Ferintosh by resident Dr. J. R. Mcleod in 1910, a member of the first Alberta legislature,
due to the mail delivery confusion with a near by town of a similar name.
The original settlers were from Ontario,
Illinois, Minnesota and Nebraska, being Anglo-Saxon, American, Scandinavian and German.
They purchased their land from the railway which had been advertising in the Middle United
States for those looking to start a homestead. By 1903 most of the land in the Ferintosh
District had been sold to private individuals.
The English language spoken by all settlers
helped to form the community and to bring a school to Ferintosh. Local entertainment
included gun shooting competitions, hunting, skating, curling and canoeing on the local
lakes, picnics, tennis, hockey and house dances. The school was built in 1911, the year
after the railway arrived. It had twelve grades by 1940.
Early farmers had to travel with horse-drawn
wagons over 30 miles, travelling at a speed of five miles per hour, to sell their grain in
Wetaskiwin. Farmers increased their acreage when the railway line was built through
Ferintosh, but had to wait until 1915 for the first Imperial Elevator to be built. By 1928
three elevators stood and brought in three to four hundred thousand bushels per year.
Ranching was a popular enterprise with some
cattle being shipped off by rail and some being locally butchered and packed until the
1930s. After 1930 trucking became the main means of transportation for livestock. 1953
estimates of livestock include 6,250 cattle, 500 horses, 500 sheep, 9,000 pigs, and 7,500
Early enterprises included a hotel built with
the vision of developing Ferintosh as a resort village. From the beginning of settlement
Ferintosh was recognized by developers as aesthetically pleasing. The main asset was and
presently is in the landscape amenity. The Ferintosh area exhibits forested rolling hills
and the scenic Little Beaver Lake. The early hotel developer wished to create a lavish
resort capturing the amenity asset. The hotel owner built a luxurious three-story hotel,
complete with a hotel bar. Unfortunately the bar was a primary revenue source for the
hotel and the hotel was torn down after the prohibition forced its closure in 1915. Other
early enterprises began in the late 1910s.
Early businesses included a real estate
agency, general stores, a creamery, meat markets and drug stores. These businesses opened
to serve Ferintosh Village and the surrounding areas. A post office and telephone exchange
kept Ferintosh in touch with the outside world. The commercial community expanded until
the late 1940s with a barbershop, restaurant, pool hall, lumberyard, machine agency,
livestock buying and selling agency, hardware store, butcher shop and packing plant,
jewelry store, levery stable, garage, three grain elevators, and the Imperial Bank. The
1930s depression effected urban businesses and families.
The depression of the 1930s hurt village
families, however most farmer managed to survive. Urban residents were forced to rely on
government relief and keep some livestock in their urban homes to sell eggs or meat for
extra income. Mixed farms were able to escape the worst effects of the depression with
livestock and self-sufficient gardening. Those who survived became prosperous in the
forties with better grain prices.
Oil was discovered in 1945 and presently
there are about 40 oil wells northwest of Ferintosh. After the war, established farmers
expanded their property and new immigrants to Ferintosh, with little income but
established trades, moved on to the larger centres. Though grain prices improved Ferintosh
businesses began to close their doors during the mid forties.
The 1940s saw the closing of the meat packing
plant, the jewelry store, the butcher shop and the livery stables. These businesses were
thought to have suffered from the 1930s depression and unfavorable management. This decade
began the erosion of the Ferintosh business community.
During the fifties more businesses closed; a
dry goods and furniture store, the hardware store, the livestock buying and selling
agency, and the Imperial Bank. The Alberta Treasury Bank resumed banking services in
Ferintosh in 1958. Transportation improvements were a factor in Ferintosh beginning to
compete against larger economic centres in the surrounding area. The main highway number
21 was classified as a Secondary Highway and was then graded and paved in 1952. Eleven
years later the base course was constructed and the road surface was paved. The highway
improvements meant Ferintosh community residents, agricultural and livestock trucks and
any other mobile industry could travel greater distances and speeds. Smaller villages
including Ferintosh were bypassed for larger centres and they began to loose control of
their economic future. The mixed farming based community began to explore other economic
options for Ferintosh.
During the sixties natural gas was discovered
in the Ferintosh area and the community gained a valuable economic asset. The Battle River
gas co-op began in 1968. The co-op was a success while other businesses continued to
close. The restaurant, pool hall, and barber shop closed during the 1960s. The continual
closing of businesses was thought to be a reflection of road improvements, residents
retiring and young people leaving to larger centres. These events were thought to be a
factor in the decrease of Ferintosh school enrollment.
In 1958 Ferintosh lost its high school
students to New Norway. Ten years later the junior high was closed. The school closed in
1975 but remains as a recreation centre. The school closure left Ferintosh without a focus
for youth organizations. The youth focus shifted outside of Ferintosh to New Norway and
One year later Ferintosh lost the focus of
the economic community. Two out of three elevators were torn down in 1976. The village
lost tax-based revenue and a pull to bring hinterland residents into the struggling
village. Ferintosh was forced to exist with a continually smaller hinterland population.
The past twenty years has seen a stable
population level and commerce. The Battle River Co-op continues to be a growing success.
The King Kuba Sausage Store proved a hard working success bringing in people from the
surrounding comminutes to buy the specialty sausages. Other community business successes
have been the thrift store run buy the Recreation Association and the Cut-Hut.
Presently Ferintosh is a quiet community with
an aging population of 130 people. There are few opportunities for youth and they continue
to leave. Those who find local employment in the oil fields or farming have the advantage
of low cost housing. New retired immigrants look forward to a relaxed pace of life. The
village's scenic amenity and strong social cohesion are felt to be a major asset.
Economic and Social Structure
Ferintosh started out to serve a hinterland
of farms and ranches. Ferintosh was originally built with small family businesses with the
vision of becoming a resort town. The residents of the village and the mixed farming
hinterland supported the small local businesses. Most farmers started with few dollars and
long labour intensive years.
Community leadership in the 1920s consisted
of local businessmen. The first mayor was elected in 1911. Councilors were chosen from the
business community. Social leadership was provided from the village and hinterland
residents. The government relief program provided early social services for the
devastating economic depression of the 1930s. Clubs and organization were active until the
1980s when the combined effect of the school closing, television and more recently,
Internet services diminished interest in community activities. Presently the Seniors
Centre and the Community Club are the main social focuses.
Between 1945 and 1960 oilfield activities and
following in the 1960s, natural gas brought additional prosperity to the Ferintosh
Community. In comparison, the expansion of farm size decreased the population of the
hinterland, creating rippling effects in the commercial and social life of the community.
Few career choices for youth encouraged them to move to larger centres, to obtain higher
education and careers.
The closing of the elevators diminished the
commercial boundaries and tax base of the village. The result is a decrease in contact
between the rural and urban communities. Recently municipal grant cuts have further
diminished the village budget.
In 1999 successful existing businesses
include the Battle River Gas Co-op, the Alberta Treasury Branch, the Cut - Hut, the Hotel,
the General Store and Ron's Framing Gallery.
Ferintosh and surrounding hinterland is part
of the metropolitan hinterland of Edmonton and the global economy. People commute within
the region to work outside of Ferintosh. Ferintosh is focussing on its original scenic
amenity, moving towards becoming a peaceful resort village. Industry development is
welcomed but not at the cost of loosing their scenic amenity asset.
The Ferintosh community is described as being
prudently run and not indebted. This is felt due to the foresight and administration of
the village council. Others describe Ferintosh as a vital, valuable, and successful place
that is on the rise over the past five years.
Ferintosh Clubs and
Ferintosh was tied to its hinterland through
collective action of volunteer organizations. Many organizations ceased to exist following
the Ferintosh school closure. The village felt a loss of social focus in the community.
Presently four volunteer community associations are active, the Hi-U Senior Centre, the
Community Club, the Recreation Association and the Ferintosh and District Fire Department.
1. Fire Co-op - 1968 bought fire truck 1969,
new truck in1982, 1984 had 208 shareholders, presently a run by the Ferintosh and District
fire department and is volunteer based
2. Lakeside Campgrounds -1982 to present, 11
serviced sites (power and water), 7 non-serviced sights
3. Seniors Drop-in Centre - 1978 to present,
Hi -U club, games and activities, blood pressure readings and health clinics
4. Not-Forgotten Club - 1940 - 1945, sent
parcels to soldiers overseas
5. Ladies Auxiliary - 1951-1961, presently
existing as the Community Club, annual town clean up and Book Bank Exchange
6. Board of Trade -1951- present
7. Recreation Centre - (old school) 1979 to
8. Alta 4 -H 'ers - 1950 - 1951
9. Clothing Club - 1954 -1955
10. Band - 1939-1941
11. United Church Explorers - 1962 - 1984
12. Canadian Girls in Training - 1959-1980
13. Messengers - 1978 - 1979, young
children's church group
14. West Women's Institute - 1952-1959 -
general community aid
15. Horticultural society - 1960- present,
1967 became part of the Community club- flower shows
16. Cubs, Beavers and Scouts - 1911-1914,
1954-1980s, 1973-1980s Beavers
1. Ball Diamond - 1937- 1960 Baseball teams
2. Curling Club- 1929 - 1992, presently a
public skating rink
3. Skating Rink - 1940 - present
4. Hockey Teams - 1930- 1975
5. Light Horse Club- 1975-1981
6. Tennis Club - 1942-1945
7. Women's Basketball-1915
1. Drugstore - 1918, was rebuilt 1920
2. House fires -1932, 1975, 1995
3. Dry Goods store - 1947 - rebuilt as Hotel
4. Post Office - 1965, not rebuilt
5. Royal light Bulk Gas and Oil station-
1972, not rebuilt
6. Hotel - 1997, some damage, now rebuilt
Ferintosh Businesses 1999
1. Battle River Co-op
2. Alberta Treasury Brach
5. General Store and Post Office
6. Ron's Framing Gallery
7. Bed and Breakfast Heritage Manor
8. Second Hand Store
9. Construction - 7 different contractors
10. Painter's Printing
11. Tax Preparation
12. Bobcat Service
13. Dairy Farms- 2
14. Turkey Farm
15. Hog Operations - 5
16. Natural Gas Plant
17. Home Baking
18. Organic Farm Operations
The strong existing businesses appear as the
top eight in the above list. The hotel recently suffered from a fire but was rebuilt and
under new ownership. The general store commercial boundaries are described as the
boundaries of the Fire Departments Jurisdiction, much smaller than in the past. The Bed
and Breakfast is attempting to market the scenic amenity of Ferintosh to visitors.
Ferintosh has historically survived through
strong community cohesion. The scenic value of the Ferintosh area has drawn people to the
area over the past hundred years. This amenity may allow for future existence of the
retired bedroom community.
The community struggles with the lack of
youth involvement or presence but remains active through the senior community's commitment
Ferintosh's history suggests that the
community has nothing more to loose, with a stable population and a desire to explore
their amenity asset the community could pull together for control over the next stage of
More photos of Ferintosh